Main Article Content
The research investigated physical properties of baobab seeds to determine suitable equipment for the processing of its seeds. Pods of baobab used in the study were collected at a local farm in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. Physical properties of the samples, such as moisture contents, mass, axial dimensions, shape indices, true and bulk densities, porosity, angle of repose and surface area were determined. The results showed that physical properties of baobab seeds were stable for moisture content, ranging between 12 to 18% dry mass (dm). The 100 seed mass (g) and geometric mean diameter increased from 0.60 g to 0.62 g and 10.12 to 10.27 mm respectively, in the moisture range of 12 to 18% dm. Other studied ranges of physical properties ranges included: average length (12.22 to 12.63 mm), width (10.10 to 10.28 mm), thickness (8.23 to 8.42 mm,), sphericity, (81.23 to 82.56 mm), surface area (319.42 to 332.53 mm2 ), 50 seed mass (0.60 and 0.62 g), and 1000 seed mass (12 and 12.4 g) within the moisture content range of 12 to 18% dm. The angle of repose of baobab seeds decreased with an increase in moisture content. The maximum value of 29.18o was obtained at 14% moisture content while a minimum value of 24.42o was obtained at 18% moisture. Moisture content had a significant effect on coefficient of friction of baobab seeds on glass, stainless steel, plywood and rubber. In the same moisture range (12-18%), the static coefficient of friction for baobab seeds ranged from 0-739 to 0-905 on stainless steel, 0-960 to 1-190 on galvanized steel, 0-812 to 1-055 on plywood and 0-496 to 0-950 on glass. The least coefficient of friction values were recorded on stainless steel and glass which implies that baobab seeds will move with lower resistance on these surfaces in post-harvest handling. On the other hand, the resistance will be higher on plywood and glass. The data obtained will serve as guide for agricultural and food engineers, food processors and technicians involved in design and construction of post-harvest equipment used for separating, cleaning, milling and other production processes, to which baobab seeds are subjected.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Acham, I., Eke, M., Edah J. (2020). Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of juice mix produced from watermelon fruit pulp and baobab fruit pulp powder. Croatian journal of food science and technology, 1(12), 48-55.10.17508/CJFST.2020.12.1.07
Addi, A.S.P., Bashira, A.M., Baraka K. (2018). Physical and Mechanical Properties of Selected Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivated in Tanzania. Journal of Engineering, 2018, 8134975.
Ajav, E.A., Ogunlade, C.A. (2014). Physical Properties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, 14(8), 1-9.
Alonge, A.F., Udofot, E.J. (2012). Some Physical Properties of African Nutmeg (Monodara myristica) Seed Relevant to its Processing. In 2012 Dallas, Texas, July 29-August 1, 2012 (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.10.13031/2013.42199
Anoh, K., (2021). Effect of baobab fruit pulp meal on testosterone concentration and gonadal and epididymal morphometry of rabbit bucks in a hot environment. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 3(44), 98-103.10.51791/njap.v44i3.613
Aremu, D.O., Babajide., N.A., Ogunlade C.A. (2014). Comparison of Some Engineering Properties of Common Cereal Grains In Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 3(4), 10-14.
Aremu, D.O., Ogunlowo, Q.O., Babajide, N.A., Ogunlade, C.A., Makinde, O.O. (2016). Selected Engineering Properties of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) Seeds. Journal of Multidiscpili-nary Engineering Science and Technology, 3(4), 4594-4598.
Arslan, S., Vursavus, K. (2008). Physico-Mechanical Properties of Almond Nut and Its Kernel as a Function of Variety and Moisture Content. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 91(2), 171-179.
Asoiro, F.U., Ani, A.O. (2011). Determination of some physical properties of African Yam beans. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 12(1), 374-380.
Bagherpour, H., Minaei, S., Khoshtaghaza, M.H., (2010). Selected physico-mechanical properties of lentil seed. International Agrophysics, 24, 81-84.
Bande, Y.M., Adam, N.M., Azmi, Y., & Jamarei, O. (2012). Determination of Selected Physical Properties of Egusi Melon (Citrullus colocynthis lanatus) Seeds. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 8, 257-265.10.6000/1927-5129.2012.08.01.40
Barakat, H. (2021). Nutritional and Rheological Characteristics of Composite Flour Substituted with Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Pulp Flour for Cake Manufacturing and Organoleptic Properties of Their Prepared Cakes. Foods. 4(10):716.
Baryeh, E.A. (2002). Physical properties of millet. Journal of Food Engineering, 51, 39-46.10.1016/S0260-8774(01)00035-8
Burubai, W., Akor, A.J., Igoni, A.H., Puyate, Y.T. (2007). Some physical properties of African nutmeg (Monodora myristica). International Agrophysics, 21, 123-126.
Chaudhary, D.A. (2015). Engineering properties of Biological materials. Retrieved August 20, 2022, https://www.academia.edu/3879560/Engineering_properties_of_biological_Materials
Coskuner, Y., Karababa, E. (2007). Physical properties of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). Journal of Food Engineering, 80(2), 408-416.10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.02.042
Darvishi, H. (2012). Moisture-Dependent Physical and Mechanical Properties of White Sesame Seed. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 12(2), 198-203.
Debelo, H., Ndiaye, C., Kruger, J., Hamaker, B., Ferruzzi, M. (2019). African Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (baobab) modifies provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility from composite pearl millet porridges. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 4(57), 1382-1392.
Deconinck, W. (2020). The science of the very small has enormous potential. Retrieved August 20, 2022, from https://futurumcareers.com/Wouter_Deconinck-The-science-of-the-very-small-has-enormous-potential.pdf10.33424/FUTURUM90
Dursun, E., Dursun, I. (2005). Some physical properties of caper seed. Biosystems Engineering, 92(2), 237-245.10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.06.003
Erwa, I., Shinger, M., Ishag, O. (2018). Background Correction Method for Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Baobab Fruit Pulp Using Direct UV Spectrophotometry. Chemical Science International Journal. 2(23), 1-6.10.9734/CSJI/2018/41080
Fadeyibi, A., Lamidi, W.A., Ademola, S.M. (2021). Engineering and proximate properties of miracle berry fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum L.) essential for its processing equipment design. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 23(4), 227-235.
Gharibzahedi, S.M.T., Etemad, V., Mirarab-Razi, J., Fos’hat, M. (2010). Study on some engineering attributes of pinenut (Pinus pinea) to the design of processing equipment. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 56(3), 99-106.10.17221/49/2009-RAE
Hussain, Z., Yagi, S., Mahomoodally, M., Mohammed, I., Zengin, G. (2019). A comparative study of different solvents and extraction techniques on the anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) fruit pulp. South African Journal of Botany. 126, 207-213.10.1016/j.sajb.2019.01.034
Idowu, D.O., Abegunrin, T.P., Ola, F.A., Adediran, A.A., Olaniran, J.A. (2012). Measurement of some engineering properties of sandbox seeds (Hura crepitans). Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 3, 318-325.10.5251/abjna.2012.3.8.318.325
Irtwange, S.V., Igbeka, J.C. (2002). Some physical properties of two African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) accessions and their interrelations with moisture content. Applied Engineering in Agriculture,18(5), 567-576.10.13031/2013.10144
Iswariya, V., Devi, A.G.S. (2021). Assessment of Potential Property of Baobab Fruit Pulp Derived Pectin as a Pharmaceutical Excipient. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 1(67), 91-96.10.47583/ijpsrr.2021.v67i01.015
Jaiyeoba, K.F., Ogunlade, C.A., Kwanaki, O.S., Fadele, O.K. (2020). Moisture Dependent Physical Properties of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) Relevant for Design of Processing Machines. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 39(12), 74-85.10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i1230665
Karungamye, P., Murthy, H. (2017). Corrosion Inhibitive and Adsorption Behaviour of Methanolic Extracts of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) Fruit Pulp and Seeds for Mild Steel in 1.0 M H2SO4. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(10), 64-74.10.9790/5736-1007016474
Gui-feng, L., Run-guo, Z., Hua, L., Zhi-qiang, B., Zhong-jun, G., Yi, D. (2012). Geographic variation of seed morphological traits of Picea schrenkiana var. tianschanica in Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang of Northwest China. Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao, 23(6), 1455-1461.
Milani, E., Razavi, S.M.A., Koocheki, A., Nikzadeh, V., VahediN., MoeinFard, M., GholamhosseinPour, A. (2007). Moisture dependent physical properties of cucurbit seeds. International Agrophysics, 21, 157-168.
Mohsenin, N.N. (1986). Engineering Properties of Plants and Animal Materials. Gordon and Breach Science publishers, New York, London. 2nd Edition.
Mosseler, A., Major, J.E., Simpson, J.D., Daigle, B., Lange, K., Park, Y.-S., Johnsen, K.H., Rajora, O.P. (2000). Indicators of population viability in red spruce, Picea rubens. I. Reproductive traits and fecundity. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78, 928-940.10.1139/b00-065
Ndjientcheu, L. Y., Ouiminga, S., Sidibe, S., Ouedraogo, I. (2020). Synthesis of a cleaner potassium hydroxide-activated carbon from baobab seeds hulls and investigation of adsorption mechanisms for diuron. Scientific African, 9, e00476.10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00476
Ogunlade, C.A., Aremu, A.K. (2019). Influence of Processing Conditions on Yield and Quality of Mechanically Expressed African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Kernels: A Response Surface Approach. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 42(2), 1-9.10.1111/jfpe.12967
Ogunlade, C.A., Alaka, A.C., Babajide, N.A., Aremu, D.O., Anjorin, S.E., Akinyele, O.A. (2016). Moisture-dependent physical properties of popcorn. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 3(2), 4069-4073.
Ohaeri, O.H., Ohaeri, E.G. (2015). Some physical and frictional properties of Dikanut (Irvingia wombolu) as a function of moisture content. British Journal of Earth Sciences Research 3(1), 16-29.
Olalusi, A.P., Bolaji, O.T. (2010). Some engineering properties of indigenous grown jatropha seeds (“Lapalapa”). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 9, 1760-1771.
Ozturk, M., Kara, Elkoca E., Ercisli S. (2008). Physico-chemical grain properties of new common bean cv. ’Elkoca-05’. Scientifc Research and Essays, 4(2), 88-93.
Perissinotto, R., Šípek, P. (2019). New species of Xiphoscelis Burmeister, 1842 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from arid regions of South Africa and Namibia. ZooKeys, 879, 57-89.10.3897/zookeys.879.37721679560731636499
Pliestic, S., Dobricevic, N., Filipovic, D., Gospodaric, Z. (2006). Physical Properties of Filbert Nut and Kernel. Biosystems Engineering, 93(2), 173-178.10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.11.008
Rawat, B.S., Uniyal, A.K. (2011). Variability in cone and seed characteristics and seed testing in various provenances of Himalayan spruce (Picea smithiana). Journal of Forestry Research, 22, 603-610.10.1007/s11676-011-0203-7
Sacilik, K., Ozturk, R., Keskin, R. (2003). Some physical properties of hemp seed. Biosystems Engineering, 86, 213-215.10.1016/S1537-5110(03)00130-2
Simonyan, K.J., Yiljep, Y.D., Oyatoyan, O.B., Bawa, G.S. (2009). Effects of Moisture Content on Some Physical Properties of Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet Seeds. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 9, 1279.
Ünal, H., Alpsoy, H.C., Ayhan, A. (2013). Effect of the moisture content on the physical properties of bitter gourd seed. International Agrophysics, 27, 455-461.10.2478/intag-2013-0016